Nanocrystalline cellulose properties.

Nanocrystacell Aqueous suspension

Product Name: Nanocrystacell Aqueous suspension

Chemical Name: C6 O5 H10

CAS Number: 9004-34-6

Nanofibrillated cellulose





Average size (Scherrer method, SEM)

Crystallinity (XRD:Segal method)

Initial decomposition temperature (DTGA in N2)


Lignin content


White – translucent

Aqueous suspension, 2-5wt.% solids;


10-15 nm wide,150-300 nm length


285 °C

Aqueous gel: 1.04 g/cm3


Nanocrystacell powder

Product Name: Nanocrystacell powder

Chemical Name: C6 O5 H10

CAS Number: 9004-34-6

Nanofibrillated cellulose


Product form

Appearance (color)

Product bulk density

Specific surface area

Moisture content(powder)

Particles (crystallites) dimensions:



Particles (crystallites) density



Amorphous phase

Sulfur content

Sulfate content

pH of dispersions

Ionc strength

Zeta potential

Average hydrodynamic diameter


Freeze vacuum dried powder

White – pale brown

350 – 400m²/g

344g (g/l) – average

5,21 (%) average


350 nm

35 nm

p= 1,45 g/cm3



0,11 %

W(s) <0,05 %

C (sulfate) < 10 mm o/kg

pH = 8,7

I = 43mmo/kg

ζ = 14,2

Ø= 255 nm


3 (1)
2 (1)
4 (1)


nanocrystacell is the world leader in the commercial production of Cellulose NanoCrystals (CNC). Produced from the tree cellulose, CNC is abundant, renewable and biodegradable.

Industry Awards




NCC can improve bonding strength of PVA in all conditions. Hardness, modulus of elasticity (MOE) and creep of PVA film were also changed positively by the addition of NCC. Thermal stability of PVA was significantly improved as NCC was added to PVA. European Polymer Journal 48 (2012) 1829–1837

The addition of nanocrystalline cellulose into a pressure-sensitive adhesives results in a significant increase in the overlap shear properties of the adhesive while maintaining the peel adhesion. Advantageously, only a small amount of nanocrystalline cellulose (0.5-15 weight percent, relative to the weight of the adhesive (meth)acrylate copolymer) are needed to observe the increase in shear properties with the acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesives.
Patent WO2016036632A1 – Pressure-sensitive adhesive containing … nanocrystalline cellulose



Paper coated with cellulose nanocrystals was used as a printing substrate, while vegetable oil-based ink was used as a printing ink in order to stay in line with environmentally preferred choice of printing materials. The results indicated an increase in surface gloss on paper coated with cellulose nanocrystals, as well as in print gloss on printed paper coated with cellulose nanocrystals. The downside of cellulose nanocrystals coating was the prolonged drying time of ink. Acta graphica 26(2015)4, 21-26

The purpose of the master’s thesis was to study and develop the proper structure of the starch and PVA coating with the optimal added concentration of the NCC and thus to improve the printability of the paper. Two paper substrates (in the continuation TM) e.g. papers have been selected for the purpose of analyzing the influence of NCC addition. On selected samples, uncoated as well as coated with the prepared starch and PVA coatings and addition of different NCC concentrations, mechanical measurements and analyses have been made. Results have shown, that the coatings with the optimized NCC loading have improved the mechanical properties of the samples and the printability of the sample paper has also improved.
Sabina Medvešek: Sabina Medvešek: Influence of nanocrystallized cellulose on paper printability-Master’s thesis- University of Ljubljana Faculty of natural sciences and engineering department of textiles, graphic arts and design



Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) are known as stronger materials than steel. Cellulose nanocrystals offer new possibilities for endowing improvement in cementitious composites by improving the mechanical properties. The addition of CNC additives improve the formation of calcium-silicate-hydrate (CSH) gel in the cement matrix with up to 0.2% of CNC concentration. Thus, this progressive formation of CSH gel in cement mortar seem to improve the strength of the cement composites up to 42-45% compared to conventional cement mortar. International Journal of Advances in Mechanical and Civil Engineering, ISSN: 2394-2827 Volume-3, Issue-1, (2016), 44-48

Recent research has shown that cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) can be used at low dosage levels (approximately 0.2% by volume of cement) to increase the extent of hydration and to improve the flexural strength of cement pastes. In total, nine different CNCs were investigated with pastes made using Type I/II and Type V cements. Isothermal calorimetry (IC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and ball-on-three-ball (B3B) flexural strength testing were used to quantify the performance of CNC-cement composites. IC and TGA results showed that CNCs increased the degree of hydration in all systems. IC results showed that the increase in total heat release was greater in the Type V than in the Type I/II cement paste systems. B3B flexural testing indicated an increase in flexural strength of up to 20% with both Type I/II and Type V systems. These results also showed that the performance of CNC-cement composites can be affected by the source and manufacturing process used to make the CNC.
Polymers 2017, 9, 424; doi:10.3390/polym9090424


Plastics and composites

Nanocellulose can be applied in a wide range of polymer matrices as reinforcement, including rubbers, thermoplastics, thermosets, and biodegradable polymers, among others. The preparation of each type of polymer composite has unique challenges for obtaining the desired properties and good dispersions of nanocellulose in the polymer matrices. Different preparation methods create different final products, thereby producing nanocomposites with different inherent mechanical, thermal, and barrier properties. Polymer 132 (2017) 368-393

The control of the nanostructure and the addition of nanoparticles to polymers have led to structural and functional property enhancements in a number of polymeric systems as a material answer to continuous requirements from advanced industrial sectors. The availability of new nanoparticles with extraordinary properties (i.e. carbon nanotubes, graphenes, but also nanoclays, nanocellulose, metals and ceramics) have determined new and exciting possibilities for a continuous enlargement of polymer markets. However, the potentialities of these new materials are still strongly dependent on the development and scaling-up of reliable processing routes.
Materials Science and Engineering R 85 (2014) 1–46


Paints and Coatings

There are many instances in the literature of nanocellulose-thermoplastic composites, but there are few studies on coatings reinforced by cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). CNC was mixed in the varnishes to improve the mechanical properties of the coatings. One of the key aspects in the technology of nanocomposites remains the dispersion of the nanoparticles within the matrix as well as its affinity with the matrix. To quantify the dispersion, efficient methods of characterization are needed in order to reveal the nanosized particles. CNC was modified by either alkyl quaternary ammonium bromides or acryloyl chloride. The mechanical properties (abrasion and scratch resistances, hardness and adhesion) were analyzed and compared to the reference varnish without nanoparticles. The modified CNC addition in UVwater- based coatings results in an approximately 30– 40% increase in wear resistance (abrasion and scratch), without any loss of appearance. J. Coat. Technol. Res., 11 (6) 841–852, 2014

An aqueous ultraviolet-cured polyurethane acrylate transparent resin formulation was submitted for accelerated weathering for 1200 h, on wood substrate, with and without added cellulose nanocrystals
(CNC) in coatings. Measurements of nanoroughness were performed with atomic force microscopy on coated weathered surfaces. Surface roughness increased 8–10 times following weathering. Color and lightness measurements were done periodically, each 100 h, during the weathering. Testing was also done for a multilayer coating, varnish on an opaque coating on wood. Addition of unmodified, i.e., hydrophilic, CNC to transparent coatings did not downgrade the color stability of coatings but actually increased their color stability, while the effect on hydrophobically modified CNC was somewhat less. Thus, addition of CNC to coatings not only increases mechanical properties but also increases color stability of coated wood.
J. Coat. Technol. Res., 12 (2) 247–258, 2015


Personal and Health Care

Currently five kinds of nanocellulose are known: crystalline nanoparticles, amorphous nanoparticles, nanofibrillated cellulose, bacterial nanocellulose, and cellulose nanoyarn that can be applicable in various areas of care and cure. The crystalline nanoparticles are applied as multifunctional agents in cosmetic remedies and dentifrices. The amorphous nanoparticles can be used as an antibacterial and hemostatic nanoagent. Nanofibrillated cellulose is characterized by excellent thickening and gel-forming properties. Bacterial nanocellulose finds applications in diverse areas of personal care and biomedicine. Nanoyarn can be used to create new types of wound dressings. After introduction of specific functional groups, the cellulose nanocarriers can be obtained and used to join various therapeutically active substances (proteolytic enzymes, amino acids, antioxidants, hemostatic drugs, etc.), which expand application areas of nanocellulose in care and cure areas. Fabrication and Self-Assembly of Nanobiomaterials, 2016, Pages 243-288

Through exhaustive extraction via successive alkali and bleaching treatments cellulose was isolated from lettuce. The isolated cellulose was hydrolyzed using 64 wt% H2SO4 at 55 °C under constant stirring for 1 h to obtain cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). Characterizations such as SEM, TEM, FTIR, TGA and XRD were done in order to determine differences in the physico-chemical characteristics of cellulose after each treatment step. The isolated CNCs have mean dimensions of 237 ± 26, 33 ± 12 and 32 ± 7 nm in length, thickness and height, respectively. These nanocrystals were incorporated to the formulations that were used to fabricate different chitosan-g-D,L-lactic acid (CgLA) scaffolds. Amide linkage formation between chitosan and lactic acid and further removal of water was facilitated by oven-drying under vacuum at 80 °C. Results show that an increase in the concentration of CNCs added, increase in porosity, degradability, drug release property and cell viability were observed from the fabricated composite scaffolds. These results can provide information on how nanofillers such as CNCs can alter the properties of tissue scaffolds through the chemical properties and interactions they provide. Moreover, these characteristics can give new properties that are necessary for certain tissue engineering applications.
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 18 October 2017



The rapid evolving electronics industry, and its ever growing requirements, requires constant creation. A number of these core properties of nanocrystacell which make it beneficial to the development of new electronic applications. Nowadays, the demand for sustainable energy devices (e.g. lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, solar cells) has increased rapidly in recent decades. Nanocelluloses (NCs) from plants or bacteria have shown promising potential as their excellent physical, mechanical and optical properties, which are important for fabricating high-performance energy devices. NC materials and their applications in different areas have been extensively reviewed in literature. However, those reviews focused on more broad properties and applications of NC materials but the discussion on the energy applications are far from comprehensive. Technically, NCs are not electrically conductive; however, conductivity is essential for some core components of an energy device. Therefore, various chemical or physical modification approaches have been developed to prepare conductive NC-based materials. Because of the excellent physical properties of NC materials as well as the rapidly increasing demands on renewable materials based energy devices, enormous research efforts have been devoted to the NC-based conductive materials and energy devices. This paper is a comprehensive review focusing on the recent progress of fabricating conductive NC materials and the energy devices, including supercapacitors, lithium ion batteries and solar cells. Nano Energy, Volume 35, May 2017, Pages 299-320

Nanocomposite materials were obtained from poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF) as matrix polymer and a stable DMF suspension of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) as the reinforcing phase. Porous and dense nanocomposite membranes were prepared by non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS) and film casting methods, respectively. The resulting films were characterized regarding their structuration, i.e., the content of crystalline phases, as well as their transport and thermo-mechanical properties. The presence of the fillers led to a mechanical reinforcement, associated with a lower strain at break. For dense nanocomposites, a thermal stabilization at temperatures higher than the melting temperature was highlighted and ascribed to the formation of a rigid cellulosic network within the matrix. The superior electrochemical performances together with the observed reinforcement effect render these porous nanocomposites membranes as interesting candidates for the replacement of commercial polyolefin-based microporous separators in lithium-ion batteries.
Electrochimica Acta, Volume 214, 1 October 2016, Pages 38-48

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